Who is Augustus: Rome's first emperor, transforming the Roman Republic to an Empire, expanding its territories, and creating a lasting legacy. Discover his rise to power, key battles, and relationships.
Augustus: The Rise of Rome's First Emperor and the Founding of the Principate
Caesar Augustus, born Gaius Octavius Thurinus and later known as Octavian, was the first Roman emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. Renowned as one of ancient Rome's most successful leaders, he transformed Rome from a republic to an empire and established the Roman Principate, marking the first phase of the Roman Empire. Augustus' reign initiated the Pax Romana (Roman Peace), a period of relative peace and stability that spanned over two centuries, despite ongoing conflicts on the empire's frontiers and the tumultuous "Year of the Four Emperors" that arose from a civil war over imperial succession.
Gaius Octavius, a member of the wealthy plebeian gens Octavia, was the maternal great-nephew of Julius Caesar. Following Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, Octavius became his adopted son and heir, inheriting not only Caesar's name but also his estate and the loyalty of his legions. Alongside Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, Octavius formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat Caesar's assassins. The Battle of Philippi (42 BC) marked their victory, and in its aftermath, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic amongst themselves, ruling as de facto dictators.
The Second Triumvirate, however, succumbed to the ambitious desires of its members. Lepidus faced exile in 36 BC, and Antony, after his defeat by Octavian at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, committed suicide. With the collapse of the Triumvirate, Augustus restored the appearance of a free republic, placing power in the hands of the Roman Senate, executive magistrates, and legislative assemblies. Yet, by securing lifetime tenure as commander-in-chief, tribune, and censor, he maintained autocratic authority. Augustus' chosen titles, such as Princeps Civitatis (First Citizen), reflected his rejection of monarchical titles, while his adoption of the title "augustus" revealed his intentions for his rule.
As Rome's first emperor, Augustus expanded the empire significantly, annexing territories such as Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia, and completing the conquest of Hispania. His foreign policy included securing the empire's borders through diplomacy, as seen in his peace negotiations with the Parthian Empire. Domestically, Augustus implemented tax reforms, developed road networks and an official courier system, established a standing army and the Praetorian Guard, and provided Rome with official police and firefighting services. His reign saw extensive rebuilding and development throughout the city.
Augustus passed away in AD 14 at the age of 75, likely from natural causes, though rumors persist that his wife, Livia, poisoned him. His adopted son, Tiberius, succeeded him as emperor, continuing the legacy of the first Roman emperor and the Principate that he had founded.
The Many Names of Augustus: Rome's First Emperor
Augustus, Rome's first emperor, held various names throughout his life due to Roman customs, societal norms, and personal preferences. He was born Gaius Octavius and later acquired the cognomen Thurinus as a toddler in 60 BC. This name was later used by his rival, Mark Antony, as a means to insult him, but Augustus remained unfazed by it.
Following the adoption by his great-uncle Julius Caesar, he took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, often distinguished from Caesar as "Octavianus" or the anglicized version, "Octavian." This name was predominantly used between 44 and 27 BC. During this period, he was sometimes referred to as Imperator Caesar, emphasizing his military victories and alluding to Julius Caesar's deification with the epithet divi filius or divi Iuli(i) filius.
On January 16, 27 BC, the Roman Senate granted him the title Augustus, signifying divine or majestic power. Historians typically refer to him as Augustus from this point until his death in AD 14. As Rome's first emperor, Augustus led the transformation of Rome from a republic to an empire and is considered one of ancient Rome's most successful leaders.
Augustus: Early Life and Family Background of Rome's First Emperor
Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, was born Gaius Octavius on September 23, 63 BC, in Rome, near the Roman Forum. His paternal family hailed from Velletri, a town approximately 40 kilometers southeast of Rome. In his childhood, he received the cognomen Thurinus, possibly to commemorate his father's victory at Thurii against a group of rebellious slaves.
Raised in his father's home village of Velletri due to Rome's crowded conditions, Augustus belonged to an equestrian family. His paternal great-grandfather, Gaius Octavius, served as a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War, while his grandfather held various local political offices. His father, also named Gaius Octavius, governed Macedonia, and his mother, Atia, was Julius Caesar's niece.
After his father's death in 59 BC, Augustus's mother married Lucius Marcius Philippus, a former Syrian governor who claimed descent from Alexander the Great and was elected consul in 56 BC. As Philippus took little interest in Augustus, he was primarily raised by his grandmother, Julia, Julius Caesar's sister, until her death in 52 or 51 BC.
Following Julia's death, Augustus's mother and stepfather played a more active role in raising him. In 47 BC, he was elected to the College of Pontiffs and later placed in charge of the Greek games held in honor of the Temple of Venus Genetrix, built by Julius Caesar.
Augustus attempted to join Caesar's campaign in Africa but was deterred by his mother's protests. In 46 BC, she allowed him to join Caesar in Hispania, but he fell ill and was unable to travel. After recovering and surviving a shipwreck, Augustus crossed hostile territory to reach Caesar's camp, impressing his great-uncle. Upon returning to Rome, Caesar named Octavius as the primary beneficiary in his will, setting the stage for the young man's rise to power.
Augustus: The Path to Power
Becoming Caesar's Heir
While in Apollonia, Illyria, for his studies and military training, Gaius Octavius received the news of Julius Caesar's assassination on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC. Despite advice to seek refuge with the troops in Macedonia, he sailed to Italy to determine his potential political future and security. Caesar, having no legitimate living children under Roman law, had adopted his grand-nephew Octavius, making him his primary heir. Mark Antony later accused Octavian of earning his adoption through sexual favors, but Suetonius considered this political slander, a common tactic during the Roman Republic.
Upon arriving in Italy, Octavian learned of Caesar's will and decided to become his political heir, inheriting two-thirds of his estate. He assumed the name Gaius Julius Caesar, though he did not use the name Octavianus, as it would have made his modest origins apparent. Historians refer to him as Octavian during this time to distinguish him from the deceased dictator.
Securing Influence and Resources
Octavian needed funds to enter Rome's political hierarchy. Upon receiving a warm welcome by Caesar's soldiers, he demanded a portion of the funds designated for the Parthian war. The Senate took no action against him as he later used this money to raise troops against Mark Antony. Octavian also acquired the annual tribute from Rome's Near Eastern province without official permission. He built his forces by emphasizing his status as Caesar's heir and attracting veterans from across Italy.
Rising Tensions in Rome
Octavian arrived in Rome on 6 May 44 BC amidst uneasy truce between Mark Antony and Caesar's assassins. Antony had lost support by opposing Caesar's elevation to divine status and allegedly withholding money from Octavian. Octavian gained the support of both Caesarian veterans and senators who saw Antony as a threat, setting the stage for conflict.
The First Confrontation with Antony
As public opinion turned against Antony, Octavian recruited Caesarian veterans and gained control of two of Antony's legions. Antony left Rome for Cisalpine Gaul, but Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, one of Caesar's assassins, refused to yield the province to him. Antony besieged Brutus, disregarding the Senate's resolutions to stop the fighting. The Senate, lacking an army, turned to Octavian for help. Octavian was inducted as senator, granted imperium pro praetore, and sent to relieve the siege. Antony's forces were defeated, but Octavian refused to continue his offensive, eventually marching on Rome with eight legions when his demands were not met.
The Path to Becoming Rome's First Emperor
After his election as consul, Octavian formed an alliance with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and, eventually, Mark Antony. As Rome's first emperor, Augustus had to fight for his throne, leading the transformation of Rome from a republic to an empire. Born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, he became one of ancient Rome's most successful leaders, navigating numerous conflicts, alliances, and political machinations to secure his position and shape the future of the Roman Empire.
The Second Triumvirate and the Rise of Octavian
The Formation of the Second Triumvirate and Proscriptions
In October 43 BC, a significant meeting took place near Bologna, where Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate. The Senate officially recognized their powers on November 27. Unlike the unofficial First Triumvirate comprising Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Marcus Licinius Crassus, the Second Triumvirate was legalized by a law passed by the plebs, granting the triumvirs special powers for five years.
The triumvirs initiated proscriptions, declaring between 130 and 300 senators and 2,000 equites as outlaws, depriving them of their property and lives if they failed to escape. The motive behind this decree was to raise funds to pay their troops in preparation for the upcoming conflict against Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus.
Battle of Philippi and Territorial Division
On January 1, 42 BC, the Senate posthumously recognized Julius Caesar as divus Iulius, a divinity of the Roman state. This allowed Octavian, as divi filius, or "Son of the Divine," to further his cause. Antony and Octavian sent 28 legions to face the armies of Brutus and Cassius in Greece. After two battles at Philippi, the Caesarian army emerged victorious, and both Brutus and Cassius committed suicide.
Following the Battle of Philippi, the triumvirs divided the territories among themselves. Octavian received Gaul and Hispania, Antony journeyed east to Egypt and allied with Queen Cleopatra, and Lepidus was left with Africa.
Rebellion, Marriage Alliances, and the Treaty of Brundisium
Dissatisfaction spread over Octavian's settlements for his soldiers, leading many to join Lucius Antonius, Mark Antony's brother, and the majority of the Senate. Octavian divorced Claudia, Fulvia's daughter, which pushed Fulvia to raise an army with Lucius Antonius to fight for Antony's rights. The conflict was ultimately resolved with the Treaty of Brundisium in 40 BC, which divided the territories among the triumvirs and solidified Antony and Octavian's alliance through the marriage of Antony to Octavia Minor, Octavian's sister.
The rise of Octavian, later known as Augustus, marked a significant transformation of Rome from a republic to an empire. As Rome's first emperor, Octavian had to fight for his throne and navigate through various conflicts, alliances, and territorial divisions, ultimately leading to his success as one of ancient Rome's most influential leaders.
Confronting Sextus Pompeius: Naval Warfare and the Struggle for Italy
Sextus Pompeius posed a significant threat to Octavian by cutting off grain shipments to Italy, causing widespread famine. Under Sextus's command, his son controlled the naval blockade, which further solidified Sextus's grip on the Mediterranean Sea. As a result, he adopted the title "son of Neptune." A temporary truce was achieved in 39 BC with the Pact of Misenum, lifting the blockade as Octavian conceded territories to Sextus and promised him a consulship in 35 BC. However, the agreement soon disintegrated when Octavian divorced Scribonia and married Livia in 38 BC. Sextus's territories were betrayed, and Octavian, lacking the resources to confront Sextus alone, extended the Second Triumvirate for another five years.
In 36 BC, Octavian and Lepidus launched a joint attack on Sextus in Sicily. Despite setbacks, General Agrippa successfully destroyed most of Sextus's naval fleet at the Battle of Naulochus. Sextus fled east but was ultimately captured and executed by one of Antony's generals. As Lepidus and Octavian accepted the surrender of Sextus's forces, Lepidus attempted to claim Sicily but was deserted by his troops, who defected to Octavian. Lepidus was allowed to retain his position as pontifex maximus but was removed from the Triumvirate and effectively exiled. Rome's territories were divided between Octavian in the West and Antony in the East, with Octavian ensuring peace and stability by securing property rights for Rome's citizens.
War with Antony and Cleopatra: The Battle of Actium and the Rise of Rome's First Emperor
While Antony's campaign against Parthia faltered, Octavian exploited Antony's relationship with Cleopatra and his dismissal of his Roman wife, Octavia, to portray him as un-Roman. In 36 BC, Octavian offered to relinquish his triumvirate position if Antony did the same, but Antony refused. Antony's decisions to grant titles and territories to his relatives and Cleopatra provided further ammunition for Octavian, who accused him of undermining Rome's supremacy.
Tensions escalated, leading to the defection of several key figures from Antony to Octavian. In 32 BC, the Senate revoked Antony's consul powers and declared war on Cleopatra's Egypt. The following year, Octavian's forces cornered Antony and Cleopatra in Greece, ultimately leading to the decisive Battle of Actium on 2 September 31 BC. Octavian's fleet, commanded by Agrippa, defeated Antony's navy, forcing Antony and Cleopatra to flee back to Egypt.
Octavian pursued the couple, defeating their forces in Alexandria on 1 August 30 BC. Antony and Cleopatra subsequently committed suicide, solidifying Octavian's position as Rome's sole ruler. He ordered the execution of Caesarion, Caesar's son by Cleopatra, but spared Cleopatra's children by Antony. After the Battle of Actium, Octavian pardoned many of his enemies, further consolidating his power as Rome's first emperor.
The Path to Absolute Power: Octavian's Transition to Augustus, Rome's First Emperor
After the victory at Actium and the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra, Octavian found himself in a position to rule the entire republic under an unofficial principate. In order to achieve this, he had to carefully secure power through incremental gains. Octavian maintained the appearance of upholding Rome's republican traditions, courting the Senate and the people, and avoiding the perception of aspiring to dictatorship or monarchy. Upon marching into Rome, Octavian and Agrippa were elected as consuls by the Senate.
Following years of civil war, Rome was in a state of near lawlessness. However, the republic was not ready to accept Octavian as a despot. Octavian's challenge was to balance his authority with the risk of further civil wars and to ensure the well-being of Rome and its provinces. His aim was to restore Rome's stability, traditional legality, and civility, which he sought to achieve by easing political pressure on the courts of law and ensuring free elections, at least in name.
The First Settlement
On January 13, 27 BC, Octavian made a public display of returning full power to the Roman Senate, relinquishing his control of the Roman provinces and their armies. Although no longer in direct control of these provinces, he retained the loyalty of active duty soldiers and veterans. His unrivaled financial power and extensive patron-client relationships cemented his position in the empire. Despite the public's awareness of his vast resources, Octavian directly took responsibility for the building and maintenance of Italy's road networks in 20 BC.
Octavian's power ultimately relied on a combination of delegated powers, private fortune, and established relationships. Although the Senate proposed that he once again assume command of the provinces, this was merely a ratification of Octavian's extra-constitutional power. In accepting a ten-year responsibility to oversee chaotic provinces, Octavian managed to maintain the appearance of a functioning republic. Through this arrangement, he gained control over the majority of Rome's legions.
Becoming Augustus, Rome's First Emperor
On January 16, 27 BC, the Senate bestowed upon Octavian the titles of Augustus and Princeps. The title Augustus signified religious rather than political authority, while Princeps indicated his position as the foremost leader. Augustus chose to emphasize his connection to Julius Caesar through the title Imperator Caesar divi filius, or "Commander Caesar, son of the deified one."
As Rome's first emperor, Augustus was granted the right to display the civic crown and have laurels draped around his doorposts. However, he avoided flaunting traditional symbols of power, such as a scepter, diadem, or wearing the golden crown and purple toga of Julius Caesar. Instead, the Senate awarded him a golden shield bearing the inscription "valor, piety, clemency, and justice." Augustus's reign marked the transformation of Rome from a republic to an empire, solidifying his place as one of ancient Rome's most successful leaders.
The Second Settlement: Augustus Consolidates Power and Balances Authority
In 23 BC, concerns began to arise over the implications of the 27 BC settlement. Augustus's continued role as an annual consul highlighted his dominance in the Roman political system and reduced opportunities for others to achieve this important position. Additionally, Augustus's ambition for his nephew, Marcus Claudius Marcellus, to succeed him as the principate alienated his primary supporters, Agrippa, Maecenas, and Livia. To mitigate these issues, Augustus appointed republican Calpurnius Piso as co-consul in 23 BC.
During a severe illness, Augustus made arrangements to ensure the principate's continuation while easing suspicions of anti-republicanism. He prepared to pass his signet ring to Agrippa and handed over official documents and authority to co-consul Piso, but left his nephew Marcellus empty-handed. This decision surprised many who expected Augustus to designate an heir to his unofficial emperor role.
Augustus granted properties and possessions to his chosen heirs, avoiding the appearance of institutionalized imperial inheritance, which would have faced resistance from republican-minded Romans. Although Marcellus was not prepared to take on the principate, Augustus's act of giving his signet ring to Agrippa signaled his intended succession.
After recovering from his illness, Augustus relinquished his consulship, only serving as consul again in 5 and 2 BC to introduce his grandsons to public life. This move allowed aspiring senators greater opportunity to achieve the consular position and let Augustus exercise wider patronage within the senatorial class.
The Second Settlement aimed to address two main issues. First, after giving up the annual consulship, Augustus required a new official position to maintain his rule. His dominant position remained unchanged in his imperial provinces, where he still held proconsular power. Secondly, the Marcus Primus affair exposed a need for a more formalized authority for Augustus to intervene in senatorial provinces.
To resolve these issues, the Senate granted Augustus a general proconsular imperium applicable throughout the empire, which was superior to that held by other proconsuls. During the Second Settlement, Augustus also received tribunician power for life, although not the official title of tribune. This power allowed him to convene the Senate and the people, veto actions, preside over elections, and speak first at meetings. Additionally, Augustus's tribunician authority included powers typically reserved for the Roman censor.
By consolidating these powers, Augustus maintained sole authority over Rome's military forces and ensured that any future Roman military victory was attributed to him. This concentration of powers under Augustus was unprecedented in Roman history, as they would have traditionally been distributed among several individuals with time limits. Augustus, however, held these powers simultaneously and without time constraints, further solidifying his unique position in Roman politics.
Establishing Constitutional Stability
To ensure the principate's constitutional stability and longevity, Augustus had to address the fragility of the regime, which was dependent on his own well-being. His health issues and the Caepio conspiracy highlighted the risks involved in the regime's reliance on a single individual. In order to mitigate these risks, proconsular imperium was granted to Agrippa for five years, granting him similar powers to Augustus. This grant aimed to secure the regime in the event of Augustus's death and prevent another outbreak of civil war. The vivid memories of past conflicts served as a constant reminder of the need for stability. Augustus's accumulation of powers eventually became complete.
Military Victories and the Pursuit of Expansion
As Rome's first emperor, Augustus chose the title Imperator ("victorious commander") to emphasize his connection with victory. His military successes were well-documented, with his troops proclaiming him "imperator" 21 times following successful battles. Augustus also promoted the notion of a superior Roman civilization tasked with ruling the world, a sentiment echoed in contemporary poetry.
By the end of his reign, Augustus had expanded the Roman Empire significantly, conquering northern Hispania, the Alpine regions, Illyricum, Pannonia, and extending the borders of Africa Proconsularis. Judea was also incorporated into the province of Syria. Despite some setbacks, Rome's influence continued to grow, thanks to Augustus's strategic planning and military prowess.
Diplomacy and Relations with Eastern Empires
In addition to military conquests, Augustus's diplomatic skills played a crucial role in securing Rome's eastern territories. He stationed a Roman army in Syria and relied on his stepson Tiberius as a skilled diplomat to negotiate with the Parthians. One of Augustus's most significant diplomatic achievements was the negotiation for the return of battle standards lost by Crassus in the Battle of Carrhae. This symbolic victory boosted Roman morale and served as propaganda for Rome's supremacy over Parthia.
Despite some military losses, such as the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, Rome continued to expand and solidify its influence under Augustus's rule. His legacy as the first Roman emperor is marked by his efforts to establish stability within the empire and his relentless pursuit of expansion.
The Intricate Path to Succession and Augustus Death: Augustus and the Future of the Roman Empire
In 23 BC, Augustus's illness highlighted the pressing issue of succession in Roman politics and society. To maintain stability, it was crucial for Augustus to designate an heir to his unparalleled position without provoking the Senate's fear of monarchy. The chosen successor would need to earn their position through publicly proven merits.
Historians speculate that Augustus initially favored his sister's son, Marcellus, who married his daughter Julia the Elder. However, after Augustus's will was read aloud during his illness in 23 BC, some historians argue that he preferred Marcus Agrippa, his second-in-command and a vital figure in maintaining control over the legions and the empire.
After Marcellus's death, Julia married Agrippa, and they had five children: Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Vipsania Julia, Agrippina, and Agrippa Postumus. Augustus demonstrated his favor for Agrippa by granting him significant power, appeasing the Caesarian party.
Augustus later adopted Gaius and Lucius Caesar, intending for them to become his heirs. He also favored his stepsons Drusus and Tiberius, though Drusus appeared to be the preferred choice. Tiberius was eventually ordered to divorce his wife Vipsania Agrippina and marry Julia, after a period of mourning for Agrippa's death.
Tiberius briefly shared Augustus's tribune powers but retired and exiled himself to Rhodes, potentially due to a combination of a failing marriage and resentment over Augustus's favoritism toward Gaius and Lucius. Following the deaths of Gaius, Lucius, and Drusus, Tiberius was recalled to Rome, adopted by Augustus, and granted additional powers.
Agrippa Postumus, another potential heir, was exiled and disowned by Augustus due to his unsavory character. Upon Augustus's death in 14 AD, rumors circulated that his wife Livia had poisoned him, though historians debate the validity of these claims. Augustus's famous last words highlighted his role as the architect of Rome's transformation from a republic to an empire.
Augustus's succession plan favored the Julian line over the Claudian, but Tiberius suppressed any resentment he may have held, focusing his anger on others like Gaius Asinius Gallus and the young Caesars, Gaius and Lucius, rather than Augustus himself.
Augustus: The First Roman Emperor and His Enduring Legacy
Augustus, born Gaius Octavius, reigned as Rome's first emperor and laid the groundwork for two centuries of peace and prosperity across the Roman west and Greek east. His influence endured through the Byzantine Empire and Holy Roman Empires, with his adopted surname, Caesar, and title, Augustus, becoming the permanent titles of Roman emperors for fourteen centuries. The concept of a universal empire was carried through these empires until their dissolutions in 1453 and 1806, respectively.
Augustus left a lasting impact on Rome, implementing a range of transformative policies and institutions, such as Rome's first institutionalized police and firefighting forces, a standing army, and an official courier system. His establishment of the Praetorian Guard in 27 BC marked the beginning of an influential political force in Rome. Augustus also focused on public works, financial support for citizens and veterans, and the restoration of temples to show his care for Roman deities.
The Pax Romana, or Pax Augusta, initiated by Augustus, contributed to the empire's prosperity for centuries. His memory was preserved as a model for good emperors, and his name was adopted as a title by every subsequent Roman emperor. However, Augustus's rule has also faced criticism throughout history, with some arguing that his rise to power involved ruthlessness, cruelty, and a disregard for legality.
Nonetheless, Augustus's reign was marked by political acumen, efficiency, and a genuine concern for Rome's well-being. His legacy is evident in the peace and stability that the Roman Empire experienced under the system he established.
Augustus's Fiscal Reforms and Contributions to the Roman Empire
The coin of Augustus, discovered at the Pudukottai hoard in present-day Tamil Nadu, India, serves as evidence of the thriving Indo-Roman trade during his reign. Augustus's public revenue reforms significantly contributed to the success of the Roman Empire. By implementing consistent, direct taxation from Rome on a greater portion of the Empire's expanded territories, Augustus increased Rome's net revenue, stabilized its cash flow, and established a regular financial relationship between Rome and its provinces.
Augustus's taxation measures relied on population census data, assigning fixed quotas to each province. While Roman and Italian citizens paid indirect taxes, direct taxes were levied on the provinces. Indirect taxes included a 4% tax on slave purchases, a 1% tax on auctioned goods, and a 5% tax on inheritances over 100,000 sesterces, excluding those received by next of kin.
An essential reform during Augustus's reign was the replacement of private tax farming with salaried civil service tax collectors. Private tax collectors, known as publicans, had wielded significant power and wealth, leading to corruption and exploitation. This change significantly reduced such issues.
Following the conquest of Egypt, Augustus utilized the land's immense revenues to finance the Empire's operations. Egypt, considered private property of the Emperor, became part of the successive emperors' patrimony. Augustus appointed a prefect from the equestrian class to govern Egypt and maintain its prosperous seaports. The highly productive agricultural land of Egypt provided substantial revenues for public works and military expeditions.
Augustus's legacy extended beyond fiscal reforms, as he also contributed to the unification of the Italian peninsula, named "Italia," and initiated numerous building projects. Under his rule, Rome's architectural landscape was transformed, with the construction of the Ara Pacis, Temple of Caesar, Baths of Agrippa, and Forum of Augustus, among others. The use of marble became widespread during his reign, symbolizing the strength and stability of the Roman Empire.
Augustus's residences, including the Domus Augusti, Horti Maecenati, and Palazzo a Mare, showcased his wealth and power. His contributions to the Roman Empire, from revenue reforms to monumental constructions, solidified his legacy as a transformative leader and Rome's first emperor.
Frequently Asked Questions
Did Augustus add more territory to the roman empire?
Yes, Augustus, born Gaius Octavius and later known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, added more territory to the Roman Empire during his reign as the first Roman Emperor. As Rome's first emperor, Augustus led the transformation of Rome from a republic to an empire and brought about the Pax Romana, a period of relative peace and stability.
Augustus expanded the empire's boundaries through military campaigns and diplomacy. Some of his conquests include Egypt after defeating Mark Antony and Cleopatra, parts of Hispania (modern-day Spain and Portugal), and territories in Europe such as Pannonia and Moesia. His able general Marcus Agrippa played a crucial role in these military campaigns, securing victories and expanding the empire's reach.
Here are some of Augustus most famous quotes.
I have never been over concerned or obsessed with opinion polls or popularity polls. I think a leader who is, is a weak leader.
To seek to keep the established constitution unchanged argues a good citizen and a good man.
Young men, listen to an old man to whom old men listened when he was young.
To see more Augustus quotes, we recommend visiting the Augustus Quote section in Quotes Analysis.
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