Who is Andrew Carnegie: Discover the life and legacy of the Scottish-American industrialist and philanthropist who revolutionized the steel industry, founded libraries, and promoted education, peace, and philanthropy in the United States and beyond.
The Inspiring Legacy of Andrew Carnegie: Steel Magnate and Philanthropist Extraordinaire
In the annals of history, Andrew Carnegie, a visionary industrialist and philanthropist, stands as a titan. Born in Dunfermline, Scotland on November 25, 1835, Carnegie went on to become one of the wealthiest and most famous industrialists of his day. As the driving force behind the American steel industry's expansion in the late 19th century, he amassed a fortune unparalleled for its time, solidifying his status as a captain of industry in 19th-century America.
At the tender age of 12, Carnegie, along with his family, emigrated to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His humble beginnings as a telegrapher and railroad messenger would soon be overshadowed by his entrepreneurial spirit and keen investments in railroads, railroad sleeping cars, bridges, and oil derricks. Carnegie's wealth continued to grow as he sold bonds for American enterprises in Europe.
Carnegie's legacy in the steel industry was cemented with the founding of Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company. In a monumental deal, he sold the company to J.P. Morgan in 1901 for $303,450,000 (equivalent to approximately $9.8 billion today), which subsequently formed the basis of the U.S. Steel Corporation. This transaction propelled Carnegie past John D. Rockefeller as the richest American for several years.
Remarkably, it was Carnegie's philanthropic endeavors that truly defined his life's work. In the last 18 years of his life, he donated around $350 million (roughly $5.5 billion in 2021) – almost 90% of his fortune – to charities, foundations, and universities. His seminal 1889 article, "The Gospel of Wealth," urged the wealthy to utilize their riches to benefit society and endorsed progressive taxation and an estate tax. Carnegie's words sparked a wave of philanthropy that continues to resonate today.
Carnegie's generosity touched countless aspects of society, from education and scientific research to world peace and the arts. Among his many contributions were the funding of Carnegie Hall in New York City, the Peace Palace in the Netherlands, and the establishment of numerous institutions, such as the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, and Carnegie Mellon University. Additionally, he played a crucial role in the creation of the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, the Carnegie Hero Fund, and more than 2,500 libraries across the United States.
Andrew Carnegie's incredible journey from a young immigrant to a self-made man who shaped the course of American industry and left an indelible mark on the world through his philanthropy serves as a testament to the power of perseverance, innovation, and generosity. His legacy continues to inspire and provide invaluable resources for generations to come.
Andrew Carnegie’s Biography
Early Life and Family Struggles
Born in Dunfermline, Scotland, Andrew Carnegie was the son of Margaret Morrison Carnegie and William Carnegie. He grew up in a modest weaver's cottage, sharing a single main room with his family and the neighboring weaver's family. In 1836, the Carnegies moved to a larger home in Edgar Street due to the demand for his father's damask weaving. Andrew received his early education at the Free School in Dunfermline, funded by philanthropist Adam Rolland of Gask.
Carnegie was deeply influenced by his maternal uncle, Scottish political leader George Lauder Sr., who introduced him to the works of Robert Burns and historical Scottish heroes. George Lauder's son, also named George, would later become Carnegie's business partner. Facing financial hardships and starvation, the Carnegies borrowed money from George Lauder Sr. and emigrated to Allegheny, Pennsylvania, in 1848 for a better life.
Early Employment and the Telegraph Industry
Upon arriving in Allegheny, Carnegie and his father both secured jobs at Anchor Cotton Mills. Carnegie's first position was as a bobbin boy, working long hours for a meager wage. Later, he found a job under John Hay, a fellow Scotsman and manufacturer of bobbins, which proved to be a challenging and demanding role.
In 1849, Carnegie began working as a telegraph messenger boy at the Ohio Telegraph Company's Pittsburgh office. His dedication to his work, impressive memory, and ability to make valuable connections helped him quickly advance to the position of an operator. Carnegie's love for reading and learning flourished thanks to Colonel James Anderson, who opened his library of 400 volumes to working boys on Saturday nights. This access to education inspired Carnegie's later philanthropic endeavors, as he vowed to provide similar opportunities to other poor boys if he ever became wealthy.
Carnegie's hard work, perseverance, and intelligence soon opened up new opportunities for him, setting the stage for his future success as an industrialist and philanthropist.
The Railroad Industry and Early Investments (1853-1865)
At 18, Andrew Carnegie began working for Thomas A. Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad as a secretary and telegraph operator, earning $4.00 per week ($130 by 2022 inflation). This opportunity allowed Carnegie to gain valuable experience and career growth. By age 24, he was promoted to superintendent of the Western Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. During this time, Carnegie employed his brother Tom and cousin Maria Hogan, the first female telegraph operator in the United States.
Carnegie's time with the Pennsylvania Railroad was crucial for his later success, as he learned about management and cost control. Scott introduced Carnegie to his first investments, often involving insider trading or payoffs. Through reinvesting his returns in railroad-related industries, Carnegie accumulated capital, which laid the foundation for his future fortune. He maintained close connections with Scott and John Edgar Thomson, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, throughout his career.
The Civil War and Carnegie's Contributions
Before the Civil War, Carnegie facilitated a merger between Woodruff's company and George Pullman's company, which produced the first-class sleeping car. This venture was a profitable success for Carnegie and Woodruff. During the war, Carnegie was appointed Superintendent of Military Railways and Union Government's telegraph lines in the East by Scott, who was then Assistant Secretary of War. Carnegie's organizational skills significantly contributed to the Union's victory in the Civil War.
Keystone Bridge Company and Expansion into Steel
In 1864, Carnegie invested in the Columbia Oil Company, yielding over $1 million in cash dividends and profitable petroleum sales within a year. The demand for iron products during the war made Pittsburgh a center of wartime production. Carnegie established a steel rolling mill, which became the primary source of his fortune. He also co-founded the Keystone Bridge Works and Union Ironworks in Pittsburgh, leveraging his connections to Scott and Thomson to secure contracts and customers.
Carnegie supplied the steel for the Eads Bridge project across the Mississippi River, which marked the opening of a new steel market. Believing in using his wealth for the greater good, Carnegie committed to earning no more than $50,000 per annum and spending the surplus on benevolent purposes.
The Rise of a Steel Magnate
1875–1900: Establishing a Steel Empire
Andrew Carnegie, a Scottish-American industrialist and philanthropist, amassed his fortune through the steel industry. He controlled the largest integrated iron and steel operations in the United States, paving the way for innovations in steel production. One of his breakthroughs was the cost-effective mass production of steel using the Bessemer process, which enabled the rapid removal of pig iron's high carbon content during steel manufacturing. Consequently, steel prices plummeted, and Bessemer steel became the material of choice for rails, though not for buildings and bridges.
Carnegie's second innovation was vertical integration, consolidating all raw material suppliers under his control. In 1883, he acquired the Homestead Steel Works, which boasted a comprehensive plant with tributary coal and iron fields, a 425-mile-long railway, and a fleet of lake steamships. By the late 1880s, Carnegie Steel emerged as the world's largest producer of pig iron, steel rails, and coke, with a daily production capacity of approximately 2,000 tons of pig iron.
By 1889, the United States surpassed the United Kingdom in steel output, with Carnegie owning a significant share. His steel empire expanded to include various assets, culminating in the formation of the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. Carnegie's success also hinged on his relationship with the railroad industry, which relied on steel for tracks and transportation. Steel and railroad tycoons worked in tandem to negotiate prices, circumventing free-market competition.
Carnegie also benefited from U.S. trade tariffs that favored the steel industry. He lobbied Congress for favorable tariffs, which earned him millions of dollars annually. Although he tried to conceal this information, legal documents disclosed during a 1900 proceeding with ex-chairman of Carnegie Steel, Henry Clay Frick, exposed the extent of these benefits.
1901: The Birth of U.S. Steel
In 1901, at the age of 65, Carnegie considered retiring and restructured his enterprises into joint-stock corporations in preparation. John Pierpont Morgan, a renowned banker and deal-maker, envisioned an integrated steel industry that would reduce costs, lower consumer prices, increase production, and raise workers' wages. To realize this vision, he sought to buy out Carnegie and other major producers, consolidating them into a single company. On March 2, 1901, he concluded negotiations and established the United States Steel Corporation—the world's first corporation with a market capitalization exceeding $1 billion.
The buyout, secretly orchestrated by Charles M. Schwab, was the largest industrial takeover in U.S. history at that time. Carnegie's steel businesses were sold for $303,450,000, with Carnegie receiving $225.64 million (equivalent to $7.35 billion in 2021) in the form of 5% 50-year gold bonds. With this, Carnegie retired from the business world.
A Scholar and Advocate for Change
1880–1900: Intellectual Pursuits and Activism
Despite his business endeavors, Carnegie found time to engage with literary figures, such as English poet Matthew Arnold, philosopher Herbert Spencer, and American humorist Mark Twain. He also corresponded with numerous U.S. presidents, statesmen, and notable writers.
Carnegie contributed to his hometown of Dunfermline in Scotland by building public swimming pools and funding a library. He donated to various educational institutions and pursued his ambition of fostering close associations between English-speaking peoples by purchasing and influencing British newspapers.
1901–1919: The Later Years as a Philanthropist
In the final years of his life, Andrew Carnegie shifted his focus from amassing wealth to using it for philanthropic purposes. He had previously expressed his views on social issues and the responsibilities of the wealthy in his works, Triumphant Democracy (1886) and Gospel of Wealth (1889). Carnegie devoted the remainder of his life to funding public interest, educational advancement, and social initiatives, cherishing the gratitude expressed by those he assisted.
He supported the spelling reform movement with $25,000 annually and established the Simplified Spelling Board, which published the Handbook of Simplified Spelling using the reformed spelling system.
Building 3,000 Public Libraries
One of Carnegie's most notable philanthropic contributions was the establishment of public libraries across the United States, Britain, Canada, and other English-speaking countries. Inspired by meetings with philanthropist Enoch Pratt and the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, Carnegie funded around 3,000 libraries under specific conditions that the local authority provide land and a budget for operation and maintenance.
Investing in Education, Science, Pensions, Civil Heroism, Music, and World Peace
Carnegie's philanthropic endeavors extended to funding educational and research institutions, including the Carnegie Institute of Technology (CIT) and the Carnegie Institution in Washington, D.C. He also served on the boards of Cornell University and Stevens Institute of Technology.
Carnegie contributed significantly to the arts, particularly music, by supporting the National Conservatory of Music of America, constructing Carnegie Hall in New York City, and funding the installation of 7,000 pipe organs in churches and temples.
In addition to these initiatives, Carnegie established pension funds for his former employees and American college professors, supported the Tuskegee Institute and the National Negro Business League, and founded the Carnegie Hero Fund for recognizing acts of heroism. He also donated $1.5 million for the construction of the Peace Palace at The Hague and $150,000 for the Pan-American Palace in Washington, D.C.
Carnegie's Death and Legacy
Carnegie passed away on August 11, 1919, in Lenox, Massachusetts. At the time of his death, he had given away around $350,695,653 (equivalent to approximately $5.49 billion in 2021). After his death, his remaining $30 million was distributed to foundations, charities, and pensioners. Carnegie is remembered as a self-made man who embodied the American dream and used his fortune to improve society and promote social change.
Andrew Carnegie: Industrialist, Philanthropist, and Controversial Figure
The 1889 Johnstown Flood and Carnegie's Involvement
In 1889, the Johnstown Flood, a catastrophic event caused by the failure of the South Fork Dam, resulted in the deaths of 2,209 people. Andrew Carnegie was a member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club, which has been held responsible for the disaster. The club, formed by Carnegie's partner Henry Clay Frick and his friend Benjamin Ruff, comprised prominent business tycoons of Western Pennsylvania, including Andrew Mellon, Philander Knox, and James Hay Reed.
The South Fork Dam, originally built between 1838 and 1853 by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, was eventually owned by the club in 1881. The dam was poorly maintained, with leaks often patched using mud and straw. Additionally, the cast iron discharge pipes that allowed controlled water release were removed and sold for scrap by a previous owner. These factors, combined with high snowmelt and heavy spring rains, led to the dam's failure on May 31, 1889, causing the devastating Johnstown Flood.
Despite the tragedy, the club's members, including Carnegie, were able to evade legal responsibility for the disaster.
The 1892 Homestead Strike
The Homestead Strike in 1892 was a violent labor dispute between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (AA) and Carnegie Steel Company, lasting 143 days. Andrew Carnegie left the negotiations to his associate Henry Clay Frick, who was known for his anti-union stance. The conflict arose when the AA demanded a wage increase, while Frick countered with a 22% wage decrease affecting almost half the union's membership.
The disagreement escalated into a lockout, and Frick brought in strikebreakers and Pinkerton agents to work the mills and protect the workers. The arrival of the Pinkerton agents led to a bloody confrontation, with 10 deaths and hundreds of injuries. Although the strike ultimately ended with non-union workers replacing the Homestead plant employees, Carnegie's reputation was tarnished by the events.
Relationship with Theodore Roosevelt
Andrew Carnegie increasingly advocated for pacifism after the United States entered the war with Spain in 1898. He opposed the war and the subsequent American takeover of the Philippines. Carnegie hoped that President Theodore Roosevelt would support his anti-imperialist stance, but he was unaware that Roosevelt was more of an imperialist than his predecessor, President McKinley. Roosevelt's deceptive manipulation of Carnegie led to a complex and contemptuous relationship between the two men.
Andrew Carnegie: Personal Life and Residences
Family and Marriage
Although Andrew Carnegie, the Scottish-American industrialist, and philanthropist, was dedicated to his career, he also had a strong bond with his family. Prioritizing his mother's well-being, Carnegie postponed marriage until after her death in 1886. At the age of 51, Carnegie married Louise Whitfield, a woman 21 years his junior. In 1897, the couple welcomed their only child, a daughter named Margaret in honor of Carnegie's mother.
Residences: Skibo Castle and New York Mansion
Carnegie's success as an industrialist and entrepreneur allowed him to establish luxurious residences in both Scotland and the United States. He purchased Skibo Castle in Scotland, which served as one of his homes. In New York, he built a mansion at 2 East 91st Street at Fifth Avenue, completed in 1902. Carnegie resided in this New York mansion until his death in 1919, while his wife Louise continued to live there until 1946.
The mansion now houses the Cooper-Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, and the surrounding neighborhood on Manhattan's Upper East Side is known as Carnegie Hill. Recognized for its historical significance, the mansion was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1966.
Andrew Carnegie's Guiding Principles and Beliefs
Despite his formal allegiance to the Republican Party, Andrew Carnegie often found himself at odds with some of the party's core principles. As a successful industrialist and philanthropist, Carnegie's political views were influenced by a variety of factors throughout his life.
The Andrew Carnegie Dictum
In his last days, suffering from pneumonia, Carnegie reflected on his life and contributions. Having donated $350,695,654 to various causes, he established the "Andrew Carnegie Dictum," which outlined a three-phase approach to life:
1. Spend the first third of one's life acquiring as much education as possible.
2. Spend the next third amassing wealth.
3. Spend the final third giving away wealth to support worthwhile causes.
Carnegie considered himself a positivist and was influenced in public life by John Bright. While involved in numerous philanthropic endeavors, he deliberately distanced himself from religious circles.
Views on Wealth
Carnegie believed that the pursuit of wealth could be detrimental to one's character, even writing in a memo to himself at the age of 33, "The amassing of wealth is one of the worst species of idolatry. No idol more debasing than the worship of money." He initially planned to retire at age 35 to focus on philanthropy, but only began his philanthropic work in earnest at 46, starting with a library donation to his hometown of Dunfermline, Scotland.
In "The Gospel of Wealth," Carnegie argued that the wealthy had a responsibility to use their resources to enrich society. He supported progressive taxation and estate taxes, viewing them as a means of ensuring the community benefited from the wealth amassed by individuals.
Carnegie once wrote in a personal memo, "It is the mind that makes the body rich... Money can only be the useful drudge of things immeasurably higher than itself." He believed that contributing to the enlightenment and joy of others, particularly through education and culture, was the noblest use of wealth.
Intellectual Influences and Divergences
Herbert Spencer's evolutionary ideas emphasized individual rights and minimal government interference. Spencer believed that society had "spontaneously fallen into division of labor," with the fittest individuals surviving and thriving. He viewed government authority as a temporary tool to establish social cohesion, protect rights, and maintain security. According to Spencer, assisting the weak and disadvantaged would hinder the process of evolution, and society should instead focus on self-preservation and resistance.
Andrew Carnegie defended laissez-faire economics and opposed government intrusion in commerce and government-sponsored charities. He believed in the concentration of capital for societal progress and supported the concept of commercial "survival of the fittest." Carnegie aimed to dominate all aspects of steel manufacturing, reducing costs and opposing labor unions, which he believed obstructed evolutionary progress.
Although Carnegie considered himself a disciple of Spencer, there were significant discrepancies between Spencer's capitalist evolutionary ideas and Carnegie's practices. While Spencer acknowledged the advantages of superior individuals in production, he feared that too much power without restraint could lead to the destruction of competitors. He opposed the use of investment schemes to eliminate competitors, referring to such practices as "commercial murder."
Carnegie, on the other hand, built his wealth in the steel industry by integrating operations and acquiring or merging with regional competitors. Over two decades, Carnegie amassed numerous industry-related assets, consolidating his control over the steel market.
Spencer opposed government interference in the form of regulations, taxes, and tariffs, viewing them as detrimental to the majority. Carnegie's personal dedication to Spencer as a friend is clear, but his adherence to Spencer's political and economic ideas remains contentious. Carnegie's steel mills in Pittsburgh, which he saw as embodiments of Spencerian philosophy, prompted Spencer to remark that living there for six months would "justify suicide."
Carnegie and Spencer's views diverged most notably in their perspectives on charity. Spencer saw public education and philanthropy as reckless and detrimental to societal progress, whereas Carnegie believed that societal progress relied on individuals fulfilling their moral obligations to themselves and society. He encouraged wealthy individuals to contribute to community improvements and held strong opinions against inherited wealth. Carnegie believed that future leaders would emerge from the ranks of the poor, valuing the work ethic and attention they received from their upbringing.
In conclusion, the relationship between Andrew Carnegie and Herbert Spencer's philosophies is complex, with both shared ideals and significant divergences. While Carnegie admired Spencer and considered himself his disciple, their views on charity, the concentration of power, and the importance of moral obligations to society differed in critical ways.
Andrew Carnegie: The Tireless Pursuit of World Peace
Andrew Carnegie was inspired by his admiration for John Bright, his "favorite living hero in public life." Consequently, he started advocating for world peace from a young age and supported causes against military intervention. Carnegie's optimistic motto, "All is well since all grows better," not only reflected his successful business career but also his perspective on international relations.
Despite his dedication to promoting international peace, Carnegie faced numerous dilemmas in reconciling his views on international relations with his other loyalties. For instance, during the 1880s and 1890s, he permitted his steel works to manufacture large orders of armor plate for the expansion and modernization of the United States Navy, even though he opposed American overseas expansion.
Carnegie was a significant benefactor for the establishment of the International Court of Arbitration's Peace Palace, an idea conceived by Russian Tsar Nicholas II. His most influential peace organization, however, was the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, founded in 1910 with a $10 million endowment. Carnegie optimistically predicted the end of war at the dedication of the Peace Palace in The Hague in 1913.
In 1914, just before the outbreak of World War I, Carnegie founded the Church Peace Union (CPU), a group comprising leaders from religion, academia, and politics. The CPU aimed to mobilize global religious organizations and other moral resources to promote ethical leadership and eradicate war forever. Today, the CPU is known as the Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, an independent, nonpartisan, and nonprofit organization.
Carnegie was shocked by the onset of World War I, which shattered his optimistic view of world peace. Although his efforts in promoting anti-imperialism and world peace had failed and the Carnegie Endowment had not met his expectations, his beliefs and ideas on international relations contributed to the foundation of the League of Nations after his death.
Regarding United States colonial expansion, Carnegie consistently opposed this policy as an unwise decision. Although he did not oppose the annexation of Hawaii and Puerto Rico, he strongly opposed the annexation of the Philippines, believing it contradicted fundamental democratic principles. Consequently, American anti-imperialists elected him vice-president of the Anti-Imperialist League.
After selling his steel company in 1901, Carnegie dedicated himself fully to the peace cause, both financially and personally. He generously supported various peacekeeping agencies to ensure their growth. Carnegie believed that the people's efforts and will were the driving forces behind maintaining peace in international relations, with money merely serving as a catalyst. He envisioned that the United States and the British Empire would merge into one nation to maintain world peace and disarmament. The creation of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in 1910 marked a significant step toward the ultimate goal of war abolition.
Honors, Namesakes, and Legacy of Andrew Carnegie
Honors and Recognitions for Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie, the Scottish-American industrialist and philanthropist, was widely recognized for his contributions to society. In 1901, he received an honorary Doctor of Laws (DLL) from the University of Glasgow and the Freedom of the City of Glasgow for his munificence. He also received the Freedom of several other cities, such as St Andrews, Perth, and Dundee in Scotland, and Belfast in Ireland.
Carnegie was elected as a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1902 and received another honorary Doctor of Laws (LLD) from the University of Aberdeen in 1906. He was honored by the French government as a Commander of the National Order of the Legion of Honour in 1910, and in 1913, he was awarded the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau by Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. Carnegie also received an honorary doctorate from the University of Groningen in the Netherlands in 1914.
Carnegie's Namesakes and Legacy
Andrew Carnegie's name and legacy live on through various institutions, locations, and even a dinosaur species. Diplodocus carnegiei, or "Dippy," was named in his honor after he sponsored the expedition that discovered its remains in Utah. The original fossil skeleton can be found at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Several locations, such as Carnegie, Pennsylvania, and Carnegie, Oklahoma, were named after him, as well as the scientific name for the Saguaro cactus, Carnegiea gigantea. Various institutions and awards also bear his name, including the Carnegie Medal for the best children's literature published in the UK, the Carnegie Faculty of Sport and Education at Leeds Beckett University, and concert halls in both Dunfermline and New York.
Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh was named after him, as he founded the institution as the Carnegie Technical Schools. Additionally, Lauder College in Dunfermline was renamed Carnegie College in 2007, and an American high school, Carnegie Vanguard High School in Houston, Texas, was named in his honor.
Carnegie's philanthropic efforts amounted to $350 million, mostly benefiting English-speaking nations. His largest gifts included $125 million to the Carnegie Corporation of New York, $60 million to public library buildings, and $20 million to colleges. He also contributed to church organs, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, and various other initiatives focused on education, scientific research, and the abolition of war.
Carnegie's personal papers can be found at the Library of Congress Manuscript Division. The Carnegie Collections of the Columbia University Rare Book and Manuscript Library consist of archives related to organizations founded by Carnegie. Carnegie Mellon University and the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh jointly administer the Andrew Carnegie Collection of digitized archives on his life.
Frequently Asked Questions
How did Andrew Carnegie’s wealth compare to today's tech billionaires?
Andrew Carnegie's wealth, while substantial during his time, is modest when compared to today's tech billionaires. At the height of his career, Carnegie was the second-richest person in the world, with a net worth of around $350 million in the early 1900s. This sum would be worth around $10-12 billion today, adjusted for inflation. In contrast, today's tech billionaires, such as Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos, and Mark Zuckerberg, have amassed net worths in the range of tens to hundreds of billions of dollars.
Carnegie, a Scottish-American industrialist and philanthropist, built his fortune primarily through the steel industry and other ventures like railroads and telegraphs. However, unlike today's tech billionaires, who have mostly generated their wealth through digital technology, software, and internet-based services, Carnegie's wealth came from more traditional industries. It is also essential to consider that Carnegie gave away a significant portion of his wealth to philanthropic causes during his lifetime, which contributed to the disparity in net worth between him and today's wealthiest individuals.
Andrew Carnegie Quotes
Here are some of Andrew Carnegie most famous quotes.
Aim for the highest.
Do not look for approval except for the consciousness of doing your best.
Do your duty and a little more and the future will take care of itself.
To see more Andrew Carnegie quotes, we recommend visiting the Andrew Carnegie Quote section in Quotes Analysis.
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